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[HGM22-P10] Pangea was a planet
Keywords:continental drift, plate tectonics, planetary impact, Arabian Peninsula, Indian Peninsulas, Indochina, Himalayan fold mountains, Pangea
Alfred Wegener had an idea that the unique super continent called Pangea suddenly broke into pieces called continents, which moved along the surface of the Earth.
However, next two major questions were not solved:
(1) Why the super continent Pangea was suddenly broken into pieces?
(2) What kind of force moved the continents?
After Wegener, the theory of plate tectonics prevails, which attributes the force moved the continents to an analogy with thermo fluid dynamics. However, introducing such idea brings about many contradictions.
In this paper, we show you a new theory of planetary impact (Mado 2010), which is able to answer these two questions, is also supported by the real landforms of the current Earth.
2.Continental Drift, Plate Tectonics, Planetary Impact
The theory of continental drift have above two major problems.
The theory of plate tectonics tried to solve the second problem by analogy with thermo liquid dynamics, though it was not able to solve the first problem at all.
It also have a significant mistake in its theoretical basis of aging the oceanic floors. Shinichiro Mado detected two major misunderstandings about oceanic floor aging:
(1) It has a misunderstanding in creating mechanisms of stripes of geo-magnetic anomalies (Mado 2013), and
(2) It has also a misunderstanding in aging the seabed by aging sediments immediately above the seabed, because of neglecting the effects of seawater increase (Mado 2014).
Therefore, plate tectonics should be rejected.
The only one remaining theory is the theory of planetary impact (Mado 2010). The theory solves both of above two problems rationally and persuasively.
3.Landforms created by curvature adaptations
Landforms created by two types of curvature adaptation (Fig.,1 Fig.2, Fig.3) are evidences of the fact of the planetary impact.
3-1. Arabian Peninsula, Indian Peninsula, Indochina
These three peninsulas had been joined in one piece before it was torn into three by the curvature adaptation (Fig.4, Fig.5) after the planetary impact. If the neighboring edges of these three peninsulas were put over the next edge, these three peninsulas would make up a dome like three-dimensional landscape. This is the proof of the fact that a ball shaped object was broken into pieces and torn to make up the current landforms.
3-2. Himalayan fold mountains
The surface of the broken ball shaped object had a greater curvature than the surface of the Earth. Therefore, when the rocks inside the pieces went down into the Earth by the gravity, wrinkles was created on the surfaces of the pieces (Fig.3). This is the reason of the creation of Himalayan fold mountains (Fig.6, Fig.7). Himalayan fold mountains are the evidence of the curvature of the surface of the broken ball shaped object being greater than the current Earth.
(1)The question, why Pangea was suddenly broken into pieces, will be answered, if we suppose Pangea was a planet which made an impact on the other planet to get into one new planet the Earth.
(2)The question, what kind of force moved continents, is answered, if we suppose the force was the gravity. That is, (a) the impact was caused by the gravity between both planets collided, and (b) the impact broke into pieces one of these planet, and (c) the force, that moved the pieces along the surface of the other planet rather unbroken, was caused by the impact.
Fortunately, the theory of planetary impact has been demonstrated by the landforms on the surface of the current Earth.
 (Mado 2010) Shinichiro Mado, On the Cause of the Continental Drift, SIT043-P01, ABSTRACTS, Japan Geoscience Union Meeting 2010.
 (Mado 2013) Shinichiro Mado, It was not switching global geo-magnetic fields that created the alternating anomalies over oceanic ridges, SEM36-P01, ABSTRACTS, Japan Geoscience Union Meeting 2013.
 (Mado 2014) Shinichiro Mado, The Ocean Floor was Expanded by
Increasing Seawater, SCG67-P01, ABSTRACTS, Japan Geoscience Union Meeting 2014.