Japan Geoscience Union Meeting 2015

Presentation information

International Session (Oral)

Symbol S (Solid Earth Sciences) » S-VC Volcanology

[S-VC11] Volatiles and volcanoes: the role of volatiles in determining how and when volcanoes erupt

Sun. May 24, 2015 11:00 AM - 12:45 PM A04 (APA HOTEL&RESORT TOKYO BAY MAKUHARI)

Convener:*Iona McIntosh(Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology), Atsushi Toramaru(Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University), Alexander Nichols(Japan Agency for Marine Earth Science and Technology), Chair:Alexander Nichols(Japan Agency for Marine Earth Science and Technology), Iona McIntosh(Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology)

11:00 AM - 11:15 AM

[SVC11-06] Geochemistry of tephra glasses and sources and origins of huge-volume felsic magmas in Japanese subduction zones

*Jun-ichi KIMURA1, Yoshitaka NAGAHASHI2, Yasufumi SATOGUCHI3, Qing CHANG1 (1.JAMSTEC, 2.Fukushima University, 3.Lake Biwa Museum)

Keywords:Large volume tephras, Geochemistry, Crustal melt, Subduction zones

Dacitic to rhyolitic glass shards from eighty widespread tephras erupted in the past 5 Mys from large calderas in Kyushu, and SW, central, and NE Japan were analyzed. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to determine 10 major and 33 trace elements and 207Pb/206Pb-208Pb/206Pb isotope ratios in the glass shards. The tephras were classified into three major geochemical types and their source rocks were identified as intermediate plutonic, sedimentary, and amphibolite rocks in the upper crust. Few tephras from SW Japan were identified as adakite and alkali rhyolite and regarded to have originated from slab melt and mantle melt, respectively. Pb isotope ratios of the tephras are comparable to those of the intermediate lavas in the source areas but are different from the basalts in these areas. The crustal assimilants for the intermediate lavas were largely from crustal melts and are represented by the rhyolitic tephras. A huge heat source is required for forming large volumes of felsic crustal melts; these are usually supplied by the mantle via basalt. Hydrous arc basalt formed by cold slab subduction is voluminous and its high water content lowers the solidus of the crustal rocks leading to effective felsic magma production. The frequency of caldera eruptions is thus thought to be fundamentally controlled by the basalt production rate depending on the subduction setting either cold-wet or hot-dry and by the subduction rate of the oceanic plate slab, which controls the amount of water being transported beneath subduction zones.