6:15 PM - 7:30 PM
[AHW27-P07] Factors controling elevated fluoride concentrations in groundwaters at the western part of Kumamoto area, Japan
Keywords:Groundwater, Volcanic aquifer, Fluoride, Geochemical process, Kumamoto
Groundwater pH is near-neutral to alkaline (7.05-9.45) while sodium and bi-carbonate is the predominant cation and anion respectively. Groundwaters are mainly Na-HCO3 type along with few Na-Cl type samples. F- concentration ranges between 0.1 to 1.57 mg/L with an average of 0.7 mg/L whereas 47% shallow groundwater and 21% deep groundwater exceeded the Japanese drinking water standard (0.8 mg/L). With respect to groundwater chemistry, high F- concentrations were mainly observed in Na-HCO3 type groundwater and low concentrations in Ca-HCO3 type groundwater. F- is positively correlated with HCO3- and Na+, indicating that groundwater with high HCO3- and Na+ contents help in dissolving of some fluoride-rich minerals. Groundwaters with higher F- contents have relatively higher pH value, suggesting that alkaline environment favors the replacement of exchangeable F- in fluoride-rich minerals by OH- in groundwater. Different ionic relationships imply that the geochemical behavior of fluoride in groundwater is also influenced by the ion-exchange process which release Na+ to the groundwater and removes Ca2+ ions from groundwater. Thermodynamic relationship between the activities of Ca2+ and F- indicate that groundwater is undersaturated with respect to fluorite (CaF2). However upper limit of fluoride (F-) is controlled by the precipitation of Ca2+ ion. These observations reflect that fluoride concentration in Kumamoto groundwater is mainly controlled by the dissolution and precipitation processes of fluoride and Ca-rich minerals.