9:45 AM - 10:15 AM
★ [SVC11-04] Diffusion experiments of chlorine in rhyolitic melts using a pure chlorine source
Keywords:chlorine, degassing, magma
The chlorine degassing in magma is crucial in the control of vapour-induced magma differentiation, ore formation, hydrothermal alteration, and volcano-atmosphere interactions, because the chlorine-rich fluids have high chemical reactivity. Since the degassing is a process involving diffusive transport of the volatiles, it is necessary to quantify the diffusivity of chlorine in silicate melts for the detailed understanding of these phenomena. Bai and Koster van Groos (1994) carried out systematic experiments of chlorine diffusion in rhyolitic melts by using molten NaCl or NaCl aqueous solutions for the chlorine source. In these cases, however, it is possible that sodium infiltrates into the melt to modify the original composition, resulting in the increase of the diffusivity because sodium efficiently cuts the silicate network. In this study, I carried out diffusion experiments of chlorine in rhyolitic melts using pure chlorine to measure the diffusivity without any significant change of the alkali content.
Chlorine was generated by means of electrolysis of a sodium chloride solution, and it was then purified cryogenically in a vacuum line. A rhyolitic glass slab prepared from natural obsidian was sealed in a quartz glass pressure vessel together with the pure chlorine, and annealed in a furnace at 750 to 950 ℃ for up to 20 days. The pressure in the vessel was calculated to be 12 to 128 bars. In a selected experiment, water was added to chlorine in the vessel to examine the water-content dependence of the chlorine diffusivity. After quenching, the chlorine contents were quantified along the diffusion profile using an EPMA.
The diffusivity of chlorine under the dry condition was determined to be 3.5×10-17 to 5.9×10-16 m2/s at 750 to 950 ℃. These values are about three orders of magnitude smaller than those previously measured for dry rhyolitic melts using the molten NaCl for the chlorine source (Bai and Koster van Groos, 1994). This difference may be attributed to the difference in the melt composition caused by sodium infiltration. The activation energy of the chlorine diffusion was calculated to be 89 kJ/mol, and is similar to that of Bai and Koster van Groos (86 kJ/mol). This indicates that the mechanism of chlorine diffusion is identical irrespective of the chlorine source. In the water-added experiment, the diffusivity was an order of magnitude greater than that in the dry experiments. Here, the water content of the melt was calculated to be 1.2 wt%.
The present study showed that the diffusivity of chlorine was much lower than previously considered. The chlorine diffusivity showed a strong dependence of the water content. These observations may indicate that the chlorine degassing occurs only when the magma has the high water content before eruption. This idea is consistent with the observation that the groundmass glass of obsidian pyroclasts, pumice, and lavas from Mukaiyama volcano, Niijima island, have the constant chlorine content (0.13±0.01 wt%), while the melt inclusions in quartz contained 0.18±0.02 wt% chlorine (Yoshimura, in preparation).