Japan Geoscience Union Meeting 2015

Presentation information


Symbol P (Space and Planetary Sciences) » P-PS Planetary Sciences

[P-PS24] Origin and evolution of materials in space

Wed. May 27, 2015 2:15 PM - 4:00 PM A02 (APA HOTEL&RESORT TOKYO BAY MAKUHARI)

Convener:*Shogo Tachibana(Department of Natural History Scieces, Hokkaido University), Hitoshi Miura(Graduate School of Natural Sciences, Department of Information and Biological Sciences, Nagoya City University), Takafumi Ootsubo(Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo), Mitsuhiko Honda(Department of Mathematics and Physics, Kanagawa University), Chair:Takafumi Ootsubo(Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo)

2:45 PM - 3:00 PM

[PPS24-10] Adsorption experiments of ammonia and clay minerals to understand nitrogen isotopic fractionation in molecular clouds

*Haruna SUGAHARA1, Yoshinori TAKANO1, Nanako O. OGAWA1, Yoshito CHIKARAISHI1, Naohiko OHKOUCHI1 (1.Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology)

Keywords:nitrogen isotopic fractionation, adsorption, ammonia, molecular clouds

Nitrogen is the fifth abundant element in the universe and also essential component of organic molecules. Various nitrogen-containing organic compounds have been found by laboratory analysis of extraterrestrial materials. The stable isotopic composition of nitrogen (15N/14N ratio) will give information about evolutionary history of the organic molecules. Primitive solar system materials such as chondrites, comets, and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) show various degrees of 15N-enrichment compared to the solar system value of -400‰[1]. They display up to +1500‰in the bulk δ15N value (‰, normalized as vs. AIR) [2, 3]. Furthermore, anomalously high 15N-enrichments, as called hot spots, have been frequently found within a single material with the highest δ15N values reaching as high as +5000‰ [4]. These 15N-enrichments are considered to be originated in cold interstellar environments. However, the mechanisms of isotopic fractionation of nitrogen in the interstellar medium are not well understood and only a few models have been proposed [e.g., 5].
In this study, we focused on adsorption process of ammonia on grain surface of interstellar dusts as a potential mechanism for the extreme 15N-enrichment and its high-heterogeneity found in extraterrestrial materials. Ammonia is a primitive nitrogen-containing compound and also one of major molecules in molecular clouds. Since ammonia is a highly reactive chemical, it is a precursor for nitrogen-involving organic molecules. The adsorption of ammonia on grain surface would be the first step for the formation of more complicated organic molecules. In order to examine the isotopic fractionation of nitrogen through adsorption of ammonia on grain surface, we performed experiments using ammonia gas and several adsorbents. For the experiments, six clay minerals (montmorillonite, saponite, dickite, kaolinite, pyrophyllite, and halloysite) were selected as the adsorbents. They were kept at 110℃ prior to the experiments to minimize adsorbed water. The each clay mineral was enclosed into a vacuumed glass vial and then ammonia gas (27‰, SI science) was introduced. A few days later, the glass vial was opened and the nitrogen isotopic composition of the adsorbed ammonia was determined by nanoEA/IRMS [6]. The results showed a relationship between δ15N values and the adsorbed ratio, which is explained by Rayleigh fractionation model. The adsorbents with low adsorption ratio have higher δ15N values compared to initial ammonia gas. The difference in the degree of 15N-enrichment and adsorption property among clay minerals was also observed. These results imply that the adsorption of ammonia on grain surface should be considered as one of potential scenarios for 15N-enrichment.

Reference: [1] Marty B. et al. (2011) Science 332, 1533. [2] Bonal L. et al. (2010) GCA 74, 6590. [3] Manfroid J. et al. (2009) A&A 503, 613. [4] Briani G. et al. (2009) PNAS 106, 105222. [5] Rodgers S.D. & Charnley S.B. (2008) Mon.Not.R.Astron.Soc.385, L48. [6] Ogawa et al. (2010) in Earth, Life, and Isotopes. pp.339.