Japan Geoscience Union Meeting 2016

Presentation information


Symbol H (Human Geosciences) » H-CG Complex & General

[H-CG26] Interdisciplinary approach to earth's changing surface

Sun. May 22, 2016 5:15 PM - 6:30 PM Poster Hall (International Exhibition Hall HALL6)

Convener:*Naofumi Yamaguchi(Center for Water Environment Studies, Ibaraki University), Hajime Naruse(Department of Geology and Mineralogy, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University), Koji Seike(Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo), Hideko Takayanagi(Institute of Geology and Paleontology, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University), Masayuki Ikeda(Shizuoka University)

5:15 PM - 6:30 PM

[HCG26-P08] A rationale of shoreline autoretreat provided by the grade index model

*Tetsuji Muto1, Hajime Naruse2 (1.Department of Environmental Science, Nagasaki University, 2.Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University)

Keywords:deltas, shoreline autoretreat, grade index, sea level rise, nonequilibrium response

The dynamics of delta distributary channels can be intensely affected by basin water depth in front of the delta, particularly in terms of a long time scale. The previous experiments conducted in use of tank facilities suggest that with deeper basin water, delta distributary channels have lower rates of alluvial aggradation and lateral migration. If the delta faces very deep water, the channels attain alluvial grade and are stabilized in a particular position in the delta plain. This effect of basin water depth can be numerically expressed with grade index (Gindex), which ranges between 0 (perfect alluvial aggradation) and 1 (alluvial grade). Given basin water depth (h), delta plain radius (x) and alluvial slope (Sa), we define dimensionless basin water depth as h*=h/Sax. Assuming a set of particular geometrical conditions that (1) the basin floor is flat and horizontal, (2) the delta is always attached with a vertical wall on the back, and (3) base level is stationary, grade index is given as Gindex=(1+2h*+Sa*h*2)-1, where Sa* is alluvial slope normalized with the delta’s foreset slope Sf (i.e. Sa*=Sa/Sf).
In a hypothetical setting where (1) base level rises at a constant rate (i.e. h also increases in proportion to time), (2) the entre sediment supplied from the outside of the system is constant (rate Qs) and accumulates as part of the delta, and (3) the delta’s angle parameters are always retained constant, time derivative of the delta’s volume V(x,h) is equal to Qs. Based on this relation, easy calculation leads to a dimensionless progradation rate (Rpro*) of the delta: Rpro*=(1-AB*)Gindex, where AB* is the delta’s bottom surface area that is made dimensionless with autostratigraphic 3D length scale L3D. It follows that shoreline autoretreat starts when AB* exceeds unity. By a similar procedure, we find that the dimensionless rate of alluvial aggradation (Ragg*) is given by: Ragg*=A*+(1-AB*)Gindex, where AB* is the delta plain’s horizontal cross section area that is made dimensionless with autostratigraphic 3D length scale (L3D). When the retreating shoreline arrives at the back wall, alluvial plain disappears and the entire depositional system is drowned (autodrowning). At this critical moment, Gindex=0 and A*=0, thus Ragg*=0.
The argument above brings a proposition that the shoreline autoretreat-autodrowning sequence, as a non-equilibrium response of the delta to steady sea level rise, is closely related to grade index. This sequence is due to the delta’s progressive expansion and increasing basin water depth (i.e. sea level rise), and thus clearly related to grade index. The grade index model provides a novel rationale for the occurrence of the autoretreat-autodrowning sequence.