Japan Geoscience Union Meeting 2016

Presentation information


Symbol S (Solid Earth Sciences) » S-CG Complex & General

[S-CG62] Activation of long-term volcanic activity by mega-earthquake

Mon. May 23, 2016 1:45 PM - 3:15 PM 201A (2F)

Convener:*Eiichi Takahashi(Earth and Planetary Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology), Mitsuhiro Nakagawa(Department of Natural History of Science, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University), Kenji Satake(Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo), Mie Ichihara(Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo), Nobuo Geshi(Geological Survey of Japan, The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology), Chair:Morihisa Hamada(国立研究開発法人海洋研究開発機構地球内部物質循環研究分野)

2:30 PM - 2:45 PM

[SCG62-10] Toward an examination of magmatic activation from viscosity-perspective

*Shingo Takeuchi1 (1.Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Civil Engineering Research Laboratory, Geosphere Sciences)

Keywords:preeruptive magma viscosity, melt viscosity scale, magmatic activation

Magma viscosity is one of the most important factors controlling activation of volcanic activity, because the timescale of magma motion is essentially controlled by the balance between the viscous resistance and the driving forces inside or outside the magmas. The present study reviews viscosity estimate for erupted magmas and modeling studies on magmatic activation from viscosity-perspective. Finally, some future studies on the evidence-based relationship between preeruptive magma viscosity and magmatic activation are proposed.
The basaltic to rhyolitic magmas have preeruptive viscosities over the range 101 to 108 Pa s (Scaillet et al., 1998, JGR; Takeuchi, 2011, JGR; Andújar and Scaillet, 2012, Lithos). Here, preeruptive magma viscosity means viscosity of phenocryst-bearing magmas in the preeruptive magma reservoirs. The preeruptive magma viscosity can be estimated from petrological data by using melt viscosity models (e.g. Giordano et al., 2008, EPSL) and rheological models of multiphase magmas (e.g. Marsh, 1981, CMP). Increasing bulk SiO2 content, preeruptive magma viscosities roughly increase from 101 to 105 Pa s. Some andesitic to dacitic magmas are estimated to be up to ca. 108 Pa s (Takeuchi, 2011, JGR) due to a large amount of phenocryst content of ca. 50 vol %. The high viscosities arise from high undeformable phenocyrst concentration in magmatic suspension and shifting melt SiO2 content to high silica rhyolitic composition. Andesitic to dacitic magmas, which are most common in arc volcanism, have wide range of preeruptive viscosities from 103 to 108 Pa s. This wide range of preeruptive viscosity may influence timescale for magmatic activation.
There are several modelling studies on activation of magmatic activity from viscosity-perspective. Models of remobilization and convective overturn in crystal mush magmas heated by injecting high temperature magmas (e.g. Burgisser and Bergantz, 2011, Nature) suggest that as a heated magma has higher viscosity, the timescale of convective overturn becomes longer. Models of dike propagation from preeruptive magma chambers at initial stage of eruption (e.g. Rubin, 1995, JGR) suggest that as a magma has higher viscosity, excess pressure required for the dike propagation from the chamber becomes larger.
Several future studies on magmatic activation from viscosity-perspective are proposed; relationship between eruptive history and temporal variation of preeruptive magma viscosity in a volcano (e.g. Gardner et al., 1995, Geology; White et al., 2006, G3); relationship between timescale of magma mixing (e.g. Tomiya et al., 2013, BV) and preeruptive magma viscosity; relationship between geophysically-detected eruption precursor and preeruptive magma viscosity (e.g. Passarelli and Brodsky, 2012, GJI). A melt viscosity scale for preeruptive magmas (Takeuchi, 2015, BV) is useful to easily estimate preeruptive magma viscosity.