Japan Geoscience Union Meeting 2018

Presentation information

[EE] Poster

B (Biogeosciences) » B-AO Astrobiology & the Origin of Life

[B-AO01] Astrobiology

Tue. May 22, 2018 1:45 PM - 3:15 PM Poster Hall (International Exhibition Hall7, Makuhari Messe)

convener:Hikaru Yabuta(Hiroshima University, Department of Earth and Planetary Systems Science), Seiji Sugita(Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Graduate School of Science Sciece, The University of Tokyo), Misato Fukagawa(名古屋大学, 共同), Fujishima Kosuke(Tokyo Institute of Technology, Earth-Life Science Institute)

[BAO01-P12] Analysis of DNA damage induced by space exposure of Deinococcus radiodurans R1 in Tanpopo mission

*Jun Yatabe1, Yuko Kawaguchi1, Iori Kinoshita1, Daisuke Fujiwara1, Motohide Aoki1, Kie Taniguchi1, Issay Narumi2, Mio Shibuya1, Hirofumi Hashimoto3, Shin-ichi Yokobori1, Akihiko Yamagishi1 (1.Tokyo university of pharmacy and life sciences, 2.Toyo University, 3.ISAS/JAXA)

Keywords:Panspermia hypothesis, Space exposure experiments, Cell aggregate, DNA damage, Quantitative-PCR

Tanpopo mission is a Japanese astrobiology experiment addressing basic questions on the origin of terrestrial life and panspermia hypothesis (Yamagishi et al., 2009; Kawaguchi et al., 2016). We have started the space experiments at the Exposure Facility of the Japan Experiment Module on the International Space Station (ISS). Capture experiment investigates existence of terrestrial microbes in space. Exposure experiment investigates the microbial survival and DNA damage caused in space. We analyze degree and types of DNA damage in Deinococcus radiodurans using following methods: 1) comparison of survival fractions of mutant strains deficient in each of DNA repair systems, 2) analysis of DNA double-strand breaks using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, 3) estimation of DNA damage using quantitative-PCR (q-PCR), 4) detection of mutation in rpoB gene and 5) analysis of DNA base damage using LC-MS/MS. In this work, we quantified DNA damage (double-strand breaks, single-strand breaks, hydrolysis of base, modified base, and so on) in part of the rpoB gene using q-PCR.
Dried deinococcus cell-aggregates with different thickness were exposed to space (space samples) for about one year. The cells were also stored in the ground laboratory (ground references) and in ISS cabin (ISS references). After exposure or storage, genomic DNA was extracted from each sample and an 887-bp region in the rpoB gene was amplified by q-PCR. Intact DNA (%) was determined from the quotient N/N0, where N = copy number of rpoB gene amplified from DNA of exposed or stored cells and N0 = copy number of rpoB gene amplified from freshly prepared DNA.
Results and Discussion
Cell-aggregates with 100 µm-thickness exposed to space all cells were dead. Intact DNA of the cell-aggregates with 100 µm-thickness exposed to space was less than 1%. On the other hand, Survival fraction in those with 500, 1000 μm-thickness was similar between the ground references and the space samples. The result indicates that UV affected only the surface of the cell-aggregates. Intact DNA showed a good correlation with surviving fraction. We will also report the types and degrees of DNA damage using other methods.
Yamagishi, A., et al., (2007) Biol. Sci. Space 21: 67−75. , Kawaguchi, Y., et al., (2016) Astrobiology 16: 363−376.