12:00 PM - 12:15 PM
[HSC05-12] Detection of CO2 bubbles in shallow sea using side-scan sonar (SSS)
Keywords:offshore CO2 storage, side-scan sonar, leakage
To specify feasible conditions for detecting CO2 bubbles with SSS, we conducted comprehensive experiments at the innermost part of Suruga Bay, where it is about 32 meters deep. In the experiments, we released CO2 bubbles at the seabed and observed them with SSS towed in the water column by a fishing vessel. The release rate was set between 500 ml/min and 5,000 ml/min, the initial diameter of the bubbles was set to be about 5 mm orand 7 mm, the speed of the vessel was set between 3 knots and 6 knots, the depth of towed SSS were was set from 10 m above the seabed to near the sea surface, and the horizontal distance between SSS and the release point were was set from 0 to 50 m.
Through the experiments, the following were revealed. First, SSS can detect CO2 bubbles only within the circle whose center is SSS and whose radius is the altitude of SSS (the distance between SSS and the seabed beneath it). Second, the detectability improves as the release rates increases and the vessel speed decreases. Third, the detectability does not greatly depend on the initial size of the bubbles. In conclusion, when the vessel towing SSS cruises at a speed of 5 knots or smaller than it, CO2 leakage whose leakage rate is equal to or larger than 500 – 1000 ml/min could be detected with SSS. We would like to emphasize that this leakage rate, corresponding to about 2 - 4 tonnesCO2/year (depending on water temperature and pressure), is tiny compared with the injection rate at demonstration scale storage, not mention to commercial scale storage.