11:45 AM - 12:00 PM
[G02-11] Introducing Narrative Approach to Earthquake Disaster Prevention (BOSAI) Teacher Training: Practice in Saitama Prefecture
Keywords:Disaster prevention, Education
Since the March 11th, 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake occurred during the daytime when students were in class, the importance of disaster education again became the focal point of society. However, educators have expressed concerns regarding the topic (Nagamatsu, Oki, 2015). Although the effectiveness of disaster prevention education is well known, there are still numerous challenges to it. For example, working hours of school teachers greatly exceed “Karoshi level,” which is over 80 hours per month. Furthermore, the curriculum in public schools is widespread, in addition to fundamental subjects. In a curriculum where there is very little space for additional implementations, it is very difficult to teach disaster prevention education that the teachers themselves have never learned before. There are no teaching materials prepared, and at school, the teachers already have their hands full guiding their students and parents. In most schools, there is only one faculty member assigned to be in charge of school safety including disaster prevention, and in essence, that faculty member has to formulate an annual safety plan and a disaster prevention manual prescribed by the School Health and Safety Law by his/herself. Based on this manual, he/she is responsible for implementing disaster prevention education for that school. With the lack of time, experience, and budget, it is unreasonable to think that the faculty is capable of making improvements from the previous year's plan. As a result, only the continuation of evacuation exercises that have become a mere micromachining and a slight modification of the manual remains.
This presentation will report more efficient and effective ways of conducting earthquake disaster prevention teacher training, and also its achievements.
2. Research Methodology
This study was carried out to alleviate such confusion of the school site. We focused on teacher training, especially for disaster prevention education that is aimed to resolve problems mentioned before by introducing a narrative approach. Teachers are introduced to a hypothetical case in which a large earthquake occurs under school management - the expression and behavior of a child, anxiety, and frustration of a teacher is described in detail from a teacher 's perspective. Teachers are then asked to write out the risks inspired by reading this, participate in group work with other teachers in charge of the same grade, and to share thoughts in front of other teachers in that school. As a result of the training, it is made possible to raise awareness of tackling disaster safety within the entire faculty, and to visualize risks and reevaluate current evacuation methods. This program is 50 minutes in total. We also made handouts which support teachers to improve the evacuation drills after the training.
3. Activities in Saitama Prefecture and Progress
We have been working with two model schools (one public elementary school, and one public junior high school) in Saitama. First, we have done the teacher training, and after that we have done the follow-ups. Teacher training was a good opportunity for the teachers to think about disaster prevention. As a result, there were many activities done positively by school. For example, autonomously revising the evacuation drill, actively making a new plan for it and practicing it, etc. We have also conducted the follow-up surveys in the end of the year.
Other than the activities of two model schools, all of the school principals in the city gathered for a meeting on July 2018. After the meeting there were positive reactions from some principals, that they were willing to do some activities of disaster prevention.
1) Nagamatsu and Oki(2016), Practical earthquake disaster prevention communication; measure effectiveness of seismic hazard map and development of practical disaster prevention education, Keio university 2015 graduation thesis.