Japan Geoscience Union Meeting 2019

Presentation information

[J] Oral

S (Solid Earth Sciences ) » S-CG Complex & General

[S-CG54] Rheology, fracture and friction in Earth and planetary sciences

Tue. May 28, 2019 1:45 PM - 3:15 PM A09 (TOKYO BAY MAKUHARI HALL)

convener:Miki Tasaka(Shimane University), Osamu Kuwano(Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology), Ichiko Shimizu(Division of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University), Hidemi Ishibashi(Faculty of Science, Shizuoka University), Chairperson:Miki Tasaka(島根大学 ), Hidemi Ishibashi(Shizuoka University)

2:00 PM - 2:15 PM

[SCG54-08] Strength of a deep fault zone along the Median Tectonic Line: Influence of chrolite friction

*Ichiko Shimizu1, Ayumi S. Okamoto, Andre R. Niemeijer2, Christopher J. Spiers2, Shun Arai3, Toru Takeshita4 (1.Division of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, 2.Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, 3.Tohoku University, 4.Hokkaido University)

Keywords:friction, fault strength, high-PT experiments

To explore the fault strength at the middle crustal levels, we conducted high-pressure hydrothermal experiments using natural fault rocks exposed along the Median Tectonic Line (MTL), focusing on the role of chlorite in fault weakening. Chlorite is a hydrous mineral commonly observed in basic metamorphic rocks and fault zones, and is known to have low friction coefficients around 0.3–0.4 at room temperature water saturated conditions (Behnsen and Faulkner, 2012), and about 0.3 at hydrothermal conditions (Okamoto et al., in review).

The experiments were performed on powdered samples of cataclasite and protomylonite, which are originated from tonalite or basic rocks in the Ryoke belt on the northern side of MTL. Cataclasites contain ~30 wt.% mica and clay minerals. Among them, chlorite-rich cataclasite (Chl-cataclasite) contains ~14 wt.% chlorite, and mica-rich cataclasite (Ms-cataclasite) contains ~14 wt.% white mica. Chlorite geothermometer (Bourdelle et al., 2013, CMP) yields a bimodal distribution (230–240°C and 290–340°C) for the protomylonite sample. The low-temperature chlorite occurs as blobs with the diameter of ~1–2 mm, which contain lamella of white mica. These chlorite grains are considered as pseudomorphs of biotite. The high-temperature chlorite filled fractures and interstice of grains. We therefore interpreted that brittle deformation first occurred at a temperature around 300°C and subsequent hydrothermal alteration occurred at 230–240°C. Chl-cataclasite also shows a bimodal temperature distribution (180–220°C and 240–300°C), although no clear relationships between temperatures and microstructures were found.

To simulate the deformation conditions at depth, friction experiments were conducted at temperature of 300°C, normal stress of 300 MPa, and pore fluid pressures of 120 MPa and 240 MPa, using the hydrothermal ring shear apparatus at Utrecht University. Sliding velocities were varied from 0.001 mm/s to 0.1 mm/s. The steady-state friction coefficients obtained for protomylonite were ~0.68, whereas those for Ms- and Chl-cataclasites were ~0.65 and ~0.56 at 120 MPa, and ~0.87 and ~0.66 at 240 MPa, respectively. Velocity stepping tests yielded velocity-weakening or neutral behaviours, although existing laboratory data for pure chlorite gouges mostly show velocity-strengthening behaviours. Our results indicate that fault strengths and sliding behaviours in the middle crusts are not drastically changed by the presence of phyllosilicates even if chlorite contents in fault zones are relatively high (<14 wt.%).