JpGU-AGU Joint Meeting 2020

Presentation information

[E] Oral

A (Atmospheric and Hydrospheric Sciences ) » A-AS Atmospheric Sciences, Meteorology & Atmospheric Environment

[A-AS07] Atmospheric Chemistry

convener:Naoko Saitoh(Center for Environmental Remote Sensing), Tomoki Nakayama(Graduate School of Fisheries and Environmental Sciences, Nagasaki University), Sakae Toyoda(Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology), Risa Uchida(Japan Automobile Research Institute)

[AAS07-12] Greenhouse gases and air quality monitoring system for urban anthropogenic emission estimation around Jakarta megacity

*Masahide Nishihashi1, Hitoshi Mukai1, Yukio Terao1, Shigeru Hashimoto1, Rizaldi Boer2, Muhammad Ardiansyah2, Bregas Budianto2, Adi Rakhman2, Gito Sugih Immanuel2, Rudi Nugroho3, Nawa Suwedi3, Anies Marufatin3, Muhammad Agus Salim3, Dodo Gunawan4, Eka Suharguniyawan4, Asep Firman Ilahi4, Muharam Syam Nugraha4, Ronald Christian Wattimena4, Bayu Feriaji4, Qoriana Maulani4, Tomohiro Oda5, Thomas Lauvaux6 (1.National Institute for Environmental Studies, 2.IPB University, Indonesia, 3.Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), Indonesia, 4.Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency (BMKG), Indonesia, 5.Universities Space Research Association/NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, USA, 6.Laboratory for Sciences of Climate and Environment (LSCE), France)

Keywords:greenhouse gases, air quality, urban monitoring, CO2 simulation, Indonesia

National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) has implemented an international joint research project for greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air quality monitoring with three institutes in Indonesia, IPB, BPPT, and BMKG since 2015/2016. The purpose of this project is to quantify anthropogenic emissions from Jakarta megacity and characterize them in terms of socioeconomic activities in the city. In order to respond to the Paris Climate Agreement, it is important for a monitoring project like ours not only to be capable of monitoring the increasing anthropogenic emissions by rapid economic growth in a developing country, but also to assess future those reduction impacts resulted from mitigation strategies implemented. It is also important to observe GHGs and related air pollutants with high accuracy in Indonesia because such kinds of observations are very limited in Southeast Asia.

We have maintained continuous monitoring systems of CO2, CH4, CO, NOx, SO2, O3, aerosol concentrations (PM2.5, PM10, BC) and the chemical components (NO3-, SO42-) of PM2.5 and PM10, and meteorological parameters at three sites: Serpong (Jakarta suburb), Bogor (center of Bogor city), and Cibeureum (mountainous area, background-like site) since 2016/2017. We have also performed automatic flask sampling of ambient air once a week. The air samples are used to analyze N2O, SF6, and carbon isotopes (13C, 14C) in CO2 at NIES and to validate CO2, CH4, and CO data obtained from the continuous measurement.

We have also conducted high-resolution atmospheric CO2 simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled to Chemistry (WRF-Chem). We used two emission inventories to prescribe the surface emissions: ODIAC (Open-source Data Inventory for Anthropogenic CO2) as fossil fuel CO2 (ffCO2) and MsTMIP (Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project) as biogenic CO2 (bioCO2).

We analyzed the intersite differences of daytime CO2 mole fractions (dCO2) between the urban sites (Serpong, Bogor) and the background-like site (Cibeureum) in the dry season (July-August 2017) and the rainy season (January-February 2018). The observed dCO2 at Serpong was 8.7 and 0.9 ppm in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively. The simulated dCO2 at Serpong shows similar decreasing trend, which is 8.5 and 3.1 ppm in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively. While the simulated CO2 values at Serpong are slightly overestimated in the rainy season possibly due to the poor reproducibility of meteorological fields (wind environment near the surface), the simulation indicates two main factors of the seasonal differences in dCO2: one is the reduction of ffCO2 at Serpong in the rainy season (3.3 ppm) and another one is the reduction of bioCO2 uptake by photosynthesis at Cibeureum in the rainy season (2.9 ppm). The seasonal differences in dCO2 observed and simulated at Bogor are similar to those of Serpong, but smaller.
In our presentation, we will also present the relationship between CO2 and the other species.