[AAS07-P28] Nitric acid gas captured in quasi-liquid layers on ice surfaces
Keywords:Ice, quasi-liquid layer, nitric acid gas, optical microscopy
Irrespective of the presence/absence of the HNO3 gas, the pure-QLLs and HNO3-QLLs appeared with increasing temperature and disappeared with decreasing temperature. The shape of pure-/HNO3-QLLs showed spherical dome and the contact angle of them on the ice basal face was ~1°. The appearance temperatures of the pure-/HNO3-QLLs were not so different (-1.9 and -0.5 to -1.8 °C, respectively). Although the disappearance temperature of pure-QLLs (-2.2 °C) was almost same as the appearance temperature, the disappearance temperature of the HNO3-QLLs (-6.4 °C) was significantly lower than the appearance temperature of them under high-PHNO3 condition (10-2 Pa). The large thermal hysteresis between the appearance and disappearance temperatures suggests that the disappearance mechanisms of the pure-/HNO3-QLLs were different. We found that the HNO3-QLLs are not composed of pure water, but rather of aqueous HNO3 solutions, and also that the HNO3-QLL and the ice crystal were in equilibrium. The evidence and the disappearance mechanism are showed as follows.
The size of the HNO3-QLLs decreased immediately after we started reducing the temperature. We could not observe such changes in the sizes of pure-QLL with temperature in the absence of the HNO3 gas. When we assumed that the mass of HNO3 in the HNO3-QLL was constant during the relatively short observation time period, the volume reduction of the HNO3-QLLs with decreasing temperature meant increasing of HNO3 concentration of the HNO3-QLL. We calculated the volume reductions as a function of temperature by using the HNO3-H2O phase diagram. The calculated volume reductions were in good agreement with the volume reductions determined experimentally.
One of the plausible causes for the disappearance of HNO3-QLLs could be the evaporation of HNO3 from the HNO3-QLLs. We calculated the equilibrium HNO3 partial vapor pressure, Pe(HNO3), of the HNO3-QLLs. As temperature decreases, Pe(HNO3) increases. It is very reasonable to expect that when Pe(HNO3) exceeds PHNO3 in the observation chamber with decreasing temperature, HNO3 evaporates from the HNO3-QLLs, resulting in the disappearance of the HNO3-QLLs.
Recently, we studied the effects of hydrogen chloride gas on the behavior of QLLs (HCl-QLLs) on ice basal faces [4,5]. We found that the HCl-QLLs were also aqueous hydrochloric acid solution, and that the temperature and HCl concentration of the HCl-QLLs were also very close to those of a liquidus line: these results were similar to those found in this study. Therefore, ice crystal surfaces would capture large amount of acidic gas components in the acidic-QLLs.
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The details of this study are shown in our paper . We will present this study from other viewpoints in “A-CC39 Glaciology” and "M-IS23: Growth and dissolution of crystal" sessions.