Keywords:Japanese Garden identity, recognition structure, overseas Japanese gardens
When studying people's image of Japanese gardens,it is necessary to pay attention to the "recognition research",which is a study on whether a certain garden is established as a Japanese garden.As one of the methods,we tried to extract the identity of Japanese gardens from the sense of the incongruity of Japanese people feels about overseas Japanese gardens.When building a Japanese garden overseas,even if the design is made by a Japanese designer,the construction is typically made by a local team,and the garden materials used (such as plants and garden stones) are also obtained locally.That may be the reason why so many Japanese people express their feelings about the Japanese garden overseas as ‘strange or uncomfortable’.The purpose of this study is to clarify the factors and parts of gardens that cause discomfort feelings in Japanese gardens abroad and the points to focus on,and to consider the recognition structure of Japanese gardens.We designed a questionnaire to study the incongruity feelings of overseas Japanese gardens. Firstly,we picked up 13 photos from “The report of the overseas Japanese gardens” published by Japanese Institute of Landscape Architecture, republished in 2006 for our survey.Secondly, to clarify the reasons we design a “Statement of Reasons” from the results of our preparatory study.We have concluded the reasons form the shape of elements or the structure of a part of a garden, and the characteristics of the landscape.The questions are as follows: (1)Do you feel somehow strange of the garden in the picture as a Japanese garden? (1: Not at all, 2: Not very much, 3: Slightly felt, 4: Very felt) (2)Which part of the photo did you feel particularly strange? (up to 3) (3)Regarding the discomfort in each part, please tell us the reason by number with reference to the “Statement of Reasons” that we presented.We conduct a survey in which our questionnaire which could be collected by mail and web, is distributed at the front gate of Rikugien Garden on April 29 and May 3, 2019.We have distributed 500 questionnaires and the number of valid responses is 166.Results and Discussion:1.Verified that non-professional Japanese people do in fact have a feeling of discomfort regarding overseas Japanese gardens.2.Through correspondence analysis, 3 dimensions that showed the focus points from the aspects of ‘natural objects/artifacts’ ‘landscape features/element features’ and ‘clear/unclear boundary’ were found. Analysis within this structure suggests that the main elements are easy to see and ‘the traditional’ ‘the depth of the landscape’ ‘the fit with adjacent elements’ are important when recognizing Japanese gardens.The contrast with the surroundings of landscape elements such as color and texture is also an important part.