[PPS09-07] Unified simulations of formation and atmospheric evolution of super-Earths
Keywords:Super-Earth, N-body simulation, Planet formation
In this work, to address this issue, we consider the following four mechanisms: (i) envelope heating by pebble accretion, (ii) mass loss during giant impacts, (iii) atmospheric loss by stellar XUV photoevaporation, and (iv) disk dispersal due to magnetically driven and photoevaporative winds. We investigate whether these mechanisms influence the amount of the atmospheres that form around super-Earths. We develop a simulation code combining an N-body simulation of planetary formation by pebbles/planetesimals and an atmospheric evolution simulation.
We perform numerical simulations and demonstrate that the observed orbital properties of super-Earths (e.g., non-resonant configuration) are well reproduced by our simulations. Regarding the amount of H/He atmospheres, we find that the first three mechanism (i)-(iii) are not enough to reduce the amount of atmospheres. In contrast, super-Earths can avoid accreting massive H/He atmospheres in disks (iv) that dissipates via magnetically driven and photoevaporative winds. In conclusion, we succeed in reproducing both orbital and atmospheric properties of observed super-Earths using N-body simulations that include atmospheric evolution.