Keywords:International Indian Ocean Expedition, Upwelling system, Interdisciplinary collaboration
It has been half a century since the International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) took place in 1960’s. Although in situ and remotely sensed observing technology have been improved significantly, our understanding of physical, chemical, and biological oceanography in the Indian Ocean is still quite limited. It has also benn discussed that recent human activities affect ocean environment, including conditions in the Indian Ocean. Considering such situations, the second IIOE (IIOE-2) was planned and launched in Dec. 2015 to investigate Indian Ocean conditions and their variations from physical, chemical, biological, and geological viewpoints and to understand their mutual interactions. Upwelling system is among important processes to be highlighted under IIOE-2, and Eastern and Western Indian Ocean Upwelling Research Initiatives (EIOURI and WIOURI) have been established as key research initiatives. Detailed descriptions of IIOE-2 and EIOURI will be presented.