[HDS10-P01] The Great East Japan Earthquak’s Impact on Human Society as Described in Haiku of 2012 and 2013
Keywords:The Great East Japan Eathquak, haiku, 2012-2013
The magnitude 9.0 earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011, had severe impact on human society by the destruction of huge mass of living areas and taking away many lives. The psychological effects resulting from this disaster are still ongoing. The destruction of coastal settlements in Kesennuma has lost not only people but also their psychological support by the community. Before the earthquake, people made their living with rich bounty of sea and nature, the earthquake and tsunami left a deep sorrow and ineffable pain (Aoki, Fujita and Kumagai 2014). Even one or two years after, many people are yet suffering with serious injuries. When cherry blossom bloomed on damage trees fired, when the fish were landed in reconstructed fish markets, when volunteers and victims deepened their ties, people found their hope and were continuing to move forward, although still irritated in slow progress of reconstruction in the disaster areas. A great deal of reconstruction has already begun, but it will take longer time to complete it (photo). The current bustle of the city is caused by the activities of the migrant construction workers and their vehicles. A large amount of capital has been invested, but no one knows how long this will continue. After this investment end, people should resume daily life with a focus on tourism and fisheries.
In order to record this impact of disaster, poets conducted a haiku meeting in Kesennuma Ocean on July 29, 2012 in the affected areas Kesennuma, and collected 1752 haiku from inland and abroad (Kesennuma Haiku Association 2012). And the July 28, 2013, they collected 1734 haiku. Many volunteers and donation promoted this haiku meeting (Kesennuma Haiku Association 2013). Here, we describe the impact left in the haiku.
2. Method of Study
Generally, understanding of haiku will be differed by the knowledge of the disaster and the taste of haiku selection. So, we employed two types of respondents, e.g. respondents of the disaster area and respondents of other areas. They read the haiku and counted the number of disaster haiku.
In 2012, respondents of disaster area selected 642 haiku (Table 1) by more than one person. But 98 of these haiku were not selected by the respondents of other areas. On the other hand, other areas selected 680 haiku by more than one person, but 136 of those haiku were not selected by disaster area. So the selection of disaster haiku was different by the area. This showed the different knowledge among areas on the disaster. And there are many haiku selected by only one respondent (Table 2). This showed the difference among individual knowledge on the disaster. In 2013, the disaster area selected 370 haiku by more than one person, other areas selected 494. Since total numbers of haiku in two years has no big difference, the disaster haiku was reduced within a year. Selected haiku mostly showed the tragic events, but some showed pleasure of landing of bonito.
4. Statistical analysis
From 2012 to 2013, the percentage of haiku composed by the disaster was decreased at the statistical significance level of 0.01 in all respondents (Table 3). Haiku recognized as to be composed by the disaster was decreased in all level (Table 4).
5. Detailed comparison of appreciation among respondents
Generally, variety of the appreciation on haiku was formed by their experiences of disaster and their taste of haiku. Although some variety will exist, more than 10 persons selected the same haiku. In 2012, they selected 157 haiku and 45 in 2013. So we can say disaster haiku was found in this experiment. Those haiku were listed in table 5 and 6.
6.1 Haiku has memorized the disaster areas by 157 in 2012 haiku data and 45 in 2013.
6.2 The appreciation of haiku was affected by the respondents’ knowledge of disaster area and their taste of haiku.
6.3 We recognized haiku that can give empathy on many people and those haiku were listed.
Acknowledgements: Haiku Association of Kesennuma District, Haiku International Association and Mr. Richard JAMBOR were thanked.
Aoki, Y., Fujita, H. and Kumagai, K. (2014) Understandings and appreciation of Haiku composed by the disaster of east Japan earthquake 11.3.2011, Proceedings of JITR Annual Conference, 2014, 205-208 (In Japanese).
Haiku Association of Kesennuma District (2012) Praying restoration 24th Haiku Contest of Kesennuma Sea, book of haiku advanced collection, 1761 verses.
Haiku Association of Kesennuma District (2013) Praying restoration 25th Haiku Contest of Kesennuma Sea, Book of haiku advaced collection, 1734 verses.