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[HSC06-07] Cross-cultural Comparison of Preferences for Birds as Landscape Elements
Keywords:Birds, Landscape Images, Preference, Urban Wildlife
Birds are both a landscape element and common form of wildlife found in parks. However, human preferences for birds as landscape elements need to be understood to know how to create better environments. In this study, we determined people’s preferences for birds as landscape elements in parks, comparing Indonesia and Japan.
2. Study Methods
The survey was conducted using a purposive sampling method, with respondent groups consisting of Indonesian and Japanese people. The data were obtained through a questionnaire survey in Japan, while Indonesian respondents were tested using an online questionnaire. In this questionnaire, respondents were asked to evaluate six landscape images (consists of three original and three modified images) on a scale ranging from “strongly like and very high scenic beauty” (10) to “strongly dislike and very low scenic beauty” (1). Besides this, respondents were also queried on their personal information and perceptions towards birds as landscape elements. The data were analyzed using scenic beauty estimation and the Mann-Whitney U Test.
3. Results and Considerations
A total of 252 respondents participated in this study, consisting of 135 Indonesians and 117 Japanese. Among the Indonesian respondents, there were more females (69.63%) than males (30.37%); conversely, there were more males (60.68%) than females (39.32%) among the Japanese respondents. A majority of Indonesian respondents visited a park less than once a month (50.37%) and spent one and a half hours or less there (53.33%). A majority of Japanese respondents visited a park once a month (45.30%) and spent one and a half hours or less there (71.79%). About 6.13% of Indonesian respondents and 3.24% of Japanese respondents visited a park for the purpose of bird watching. A majority of respondents agreed that birds are interesting (94.07% of Indonesian respondents and 65.81% of Japanese respondents) and did not feel disturbed by their presence in parks (97.78% of Indonesian respondents and 92.31% of Japanese respondents).
The results revealed that respondents from both countries preferred birds as landscape elements in parks; however, in evaluating scenic beauty (Figure 1), Japanese respondents tended to give lower scenic beauty scores for two landscape images with birds (L4=33.40 and L7=26.69) than Indonesian respondents (L4=37.69 and L7=71.17). Mann-Whitney U Test revealed that there were significant differences in preferences between Indonesian and Japanese respondents for two landscape images (L2 and L7). Landscape image two (L2) was a modified version of landscape image seven (L7) that featured birds.
In this study, a majority of respondents agreed that birds are interesting and did not feel disturbed by their presence in parks. It was evident that people from both countries appreciated birds as landscape elements in parks. However, there was a slight difference in how they appreciated birds as landscape elements.