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[HSC06-10] The relationships between alun-alun and urban facilities based on old maps
Keywords:Indonesia, open space, urban facility, city identity, urban planing
In recent years, due to swift changes in the shift from a local to a globalized environment, cities are facing a crisis of how to standardize identities, which in turn forces them to compete with each other to become attractive tourist destinations. This means that cities develop strategies to support, sell, and advertise within the global market. Recent surveys have revealed that there are mainly three approaches to promoting cities: cultural mega events, restoring and promoting heritage, and constructing iconic buildings.
This study focuses on alun-alun, which are iconic open spaces in Java, Indonesia. In Southeast Asia, cities are facing a crisis of change due to rapid expansion and development. To preserve iconic open spaces, this study sheds light on their historical value, especially in terms of urban planning. This research aims to clarify the conditions of alun-alun and what kinds of facilities relate to them.
This study used maps from the Dutch colonial period (1893 to 1943) and a map from the Japanese colonial period (1943 to 1945), which can be found in Leiden University’s online library. Facilities within a 500-meter radius around alun-alun were extracted and analyzed.
Alun-alun can be found all over Java. According to the survey, 11 cities included the names of alun-alun directly in maps: Bandung, Cirebon, Tegal, Banyumas, Megelang, Wonosari, Madiun, Kediri, Malang, Banyuwangi, and Bangkalan. This means that during the era when the maps were created, alun-alun were recognized.
Some findings became clear in terms of the relationship between urban facilities and alun-alun. The presence of mosques was confirmed in 10 cities. All of them were directly connected to the western side of alun-alun. Office of regents were confirmed in all 11 cities, but there was no rule regarding the direction of regents. They were in the north in four cities, in the east in four cities, and in the south in three cities. Other administrative facilities were confirmed as well: post offices (five cities), prisons (five cities), telegram offices (four cities), telephone offices (four cities), city halls (two cities), office of assistant resident (two cities), police departments (one city), water offices (one city), fire stations (one city), cadaster offices (one city), and barisan barracks (one city). In the maps, schools were confirmed in all 11 cities. Several schools were confirmed in each city. Certain types of schools (such as vocational and European ones) were verified as well. Regarding other facilities supporting cities, the following were found: hotels (six cities), banks (six cities), markets (four cities), sociëteit (three cities), hospitals (two cities), parks (two cities), pharmacies (two cities), Chinese captain houses (two cities), kindergartens (one city), restaurants (one city), shops, stations (one city), and theaters (one city).
In this research revealed that mosques and regents had a strong relationship with alun-alun. In terms of location, mosques were directly connected to the western side of alun-alun, but office of regents were not bound by any specific rules, especially regarding direction. There were many administrative facilities and other facilities supporting cities near alun-alun.