[HSC06-P01] A trend of landscape appreciation studies from the view point of understanding of landscape phenomenon until 2015
Keywords:understanding of landscape phenomena, trend of landscape study, until 2015
Landscape evaluation using psychometrical methods was pioneered by Peterson (1967). Such studies were popularized during 1970-1990’s, but recently such research has tended to decrease. Figure 1 shows that the number of survey papers follows a similar tendency. Various technical developments of measurements and analysis were tried, and the first predictive model to explain the preference of landscapes was proposed by Shafer, Hamilton and Schmidt (1969). On the other hand, this approach was criticized by Carlson (1977), although this criticism never proposed a way to resolve these problems. The background of this decline lies in the deadlock faced in the study of landscape evaluation study throughout the world (Fig.1).
2. Understandings in Japan
At the beginning of research on this subject, Japan and the United States were leading technical developments of in this area in the 1970s. Japanese researchers were interested in the application of the results of experiments based on the assumption of universality and everlasting truth of their results. This assumption was formed by the easy use of the results in Japan, which were obtained at the beginning by the respondents who are studying in the university. They are graduated from an uniform, nation-wide, and effective education system.
3. Understandings in western countries
On the other hand, researchers in the United States were interested in the effects of diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds because of their society’s diversity in racial and cultural backgrounds provided by the large immigrant population. They interested in the variety of stakeholders in their society and required consensus in the community, and planners needed more consideration to apply their data in their planning. As a consequence, they accumulated numerous studies in their scientific journals (Fig. 2).
4. Evolution of understanding
According to landscape evaluation research that spread from Japan and the United States to Europe and the world, the different results obtained arose due to ethnic and cultural backgrounds similar to those of the United States. Researchers have run into the problem of what the results they obtained meant, i.e. what landscape evaluation was. We now know that the phenomenon of landscape evaluation is part of the mental aspects humans realize through their experience at the site and at the time, and human understanding of landscape appreciation has evolved through historical age (Appleton 1986, Bourassa 1991, Aoki and Kitamura 2001).
5. Faced to wall
This problem brought us new questions to consider, namely universality and immutability in transition between eras, as well as regional landscape evaluation. Planners who shaped the landscape by physical planning began to feel anxious about their results and wanted to understand how landscape evaluation results obtained at a certain point in time could be proven to be true and keep their usefulness in planning. Here, landscape evaluation study faced a big wall (Aoki 2014, Aoki 2015).
6. Recent trends
However, in recent years landscape is actively researched in developing countries, and the number of papers has increased again since 2011. This research from developing countries may break through the wall currently faced by the field of landscape evaluation. Based on the discussion in JpGU2013 and JpGU2014, we hope that the outcome of this year‘s workshop can supports these efforts.
Study of landscape appreciation was initiated by Professor Jay Appleton of Hull University. Also, I learned a lot through the global literatures reported in this paper for which I am grateful to the authors of these papers. English text was checked by Prof. Associate Tom Jones of Meiji University, was thanked.
Aoki, Y. (2014) Landscape Appreciation reported at the Conference of Japan Geoscience Union 2013 in term of Landscape Experience, J. of Environmental Information Science 42(5), 111-118.
Aoki, Y. (2015) A historical review of landscape appreciation studies published in English journals until 2013, J. of Environmental Information Science 43(5), 115-124.
Aoki, Y. and Kitamura, S. (2001) Ontogenic and phylogenic evolution of the human appreciation of the landscape, 38th IFLA World Congress Singapore 2001 conference proceedings, Singapore, P114-122pp.
Appleton, J.H. (1986) The Experience of Landscape, Hull University Press, 293pp.