JpGU-AGU Joint Meeting 2017

Presentation information

[JJ] Oral

M (Multidisciplinary and Interdisciplinary) » M-IS Intersection

[M-IS22] [JJ] Drilling Earth Science

Thu. May 25, 2017 9:00 AM - 10:30 AM IC (International Conference Hall 2F)

convener:Yasuhiro Yamada(Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), R&D Center for Ocean Drilling Science (ODS)), Katsuyoshi Michibayashi(Institute of Geosciences, Shizuoka University), Minoru Ikehara(Center for Advanced Marine Core Research, Kochi University), Yusuke Suganuma(National institute of Polar Research), Chairperson:Yasuhiro Yamada(Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), R&D Center for Ocean Drilling Science (ODS)), Chairperson:Fumio Inagaki(Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology)

9:00 AM - 9:15 AM

[MIS22-07] IODP Expedition 370: Temperature Limit of the Deep Biosphere off Muroto

Verena B Heuer2, Fumio Inagaki3,1, *Yuki Morono1, Yusuke Kubo4, Lena Maeda4 (1.Kochi Institute for Core Sample Research, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 2.MARUM-Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, 3.Research and Development Center for Ocean Drilling Science, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 4.Center for Deep Earth Exploration, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology)

Keywords:IODP, Deep Biosphere

International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 370 aimed to explore the limits of life in the deep subseafloor biosphere at a location where temperature increases with depth at an intermediate rate and exceeds the known temperature maximum of microbial life (~120°C) at the sediment/basement interface ~1.2 km below the seafloor. Drilling Site C0023 is located in the vicinity of Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Sites 808 and 1174 at the protothrust zone in the Nankai Trough off Cape Muroto at a water depth of 4776 m. ODP Leg 190 in 2000, revealed the presence of microbial cells at Site 1174 to a depth of ~600 meters below seafloor (mbsf), which corresponds to an estimated temperature of ~70°C, and reliably identified a single zone of higher cell concentrations just above the décollement at around 800 mbsf, where temperature presumably reached 90°C; no cell count data was reported for other sediment layers in the 70°–120°C range, because the limit of sensitivity in cell counting for low-biomass samples was not high enough. With the establishment of Site C0023, we aimed to detect and investigate the presence or absence of life and biological processes at the biotic–abiotic transition with unprecedented analytical sensitivity and precision. Expedition 370 was the first expedition dedicated to subseafloor microbiology that achieved time-critical processing and analyses of deep biosphere samples by simultaneous shipboard and shore-based investigations.
Our primary objectives during Expedition 370 were to study the relationship between the deep subseafloor biosphere and temperature. We aimed to comprehensively study the factors that control biomass, activity, and diversity of microbial communities in a subseafloor environment where temperatures increase from ~2°C at the seafloor to ~120°C at the sediment/basement interface and thus likely encompasses the biotic–abiotic transition zone. We also aimed to determine geochemical, geophysical, and hydrogeological characteristics in sediment and the underlying basaltic basement and elucidate if the supply of fluids containing thermogenic and/or geogenic nutrient and energy substrates may support subseafloor microbial communities in the Nankai accretionary complex.
To address these primary scientific objectives and questions, we penetrated 1180 m and recovered 112 cores across the sediment/basalt interface. More than 13,000 samples were collected. Ensuring minimal contamination of potentially extremely low biomass core samples was of highest priority for the research objectives of Expedition 370. Therefore, rigorous quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) efforts and super-clean technologies were implemented, including helicopter transport of freshly taken core samples to the onshore super-clean room facility at Kochi Core Center (KCC).